APA Style for In-Text Citations

APA Style for In-Text Citations

1. Author named in a signal phrase (direct quotation)

Berghahn (2007) notes that the common theme of Fatih Akin’s films is “the migrant’s experience of rootlessness, of culture clash and of living between or in two worlds” (p. 143).

According to Berghahn (2007), the common theme of Fatih Akin’s films is “the migrant’s experience of rootlessness, of culture clash and of living between or in two worlds” (p. 143).

Daniels (1999) points out in his report that through media studies “students learn to consider what doesn’t get shown as well as what does to determine the truth of a reported piece” (p. 79).

McBrien (1999) writes that helping students become media literate means providing them with “tools to make responsible choices about what they see and hear” (p. 76).

2. Author named in a parenthetical reference (direct quotation)

The common theme of Fatih Akin’s films is “the migrant’s experience of rootlessness, of culture clash and of living between or in two worlds” (Berghahn, 2007, p. 143).

3. Author named in a signal phrase (paraphrase)

As Hall (1990) points out, identities undergo constant transformation, subject to the continual play of history, culture, and power.

According to Hall (1990), identities undergo constant transformation, subject to the continual play of history, culture, and power.

4. Author named in a parenthetical reference (paraphrase)

Identities undergo constant transformation, subject to the continual play of history, culture, and power (Hall, 1990).

5. Two authors named (direct quotation)

Gioia and Gwynn (2006) write that “the art of the short story is to show humanity something unforgettable” (p. 6).

As emphasized earlier, “the art of the short story is to show humanity something unforgettable” (Gioia & Gwynn, 2006, p. 6).

According to Jordan and Allinson (2005), “the films of Pedro Almodovar have deconstructed many of the themes, tropes, stereotypes and symbols associated with Spanish national idenity” (p. 147).

6. Two authors named (paraphrase)

The Motion Picture Association of America predicts that by the year 2010 the increase in the U.S. population will lift movie admissions by 12% (Hiebert & Gibbons, 2000).

Hiebert and Gibbons (2000) state that by the year 2010 the increase in the U.S. population will lift movie admissions by 12%.

7. Electronic source with no page number
For an electronic document with no page number, use the paragraph number preceded by the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para. See the examples below:

Referring to Return of the King, Thill (2004) argues that “there is simply too much narrative in Tolkien’s universe — and Jackson’s vision of it — to absorb in one sitting” (¶ 8).

Referring to Return of the King, Thill (2004) argues that “there is simply too much narrative in Tolkien’s universe — and Jackson’s vision of it — to absorb in one sitting” (para. 8).

8. A source cited in another source

Paraphrase:
A UK-based study by Livinsgtone and Bovill (as cited in Osgerby, 2004) indicates that in the late 1990s young people who were between the ages of six and seventeen spent approximately five hours a day consuming media.
[Important: Only use Osgerby's work in your list of references]

Direct quotation:
A UK-based study by Livinsgtone and Bovill (as cited in Osgerby, 2004) indicates that “in the late 1990s young people who were between the ages of six and seventeen spent approximately five hours a day consuming media” (p. 233).
[Important: Only use Osgerby's work in your list of references]

© Ali Nihat Eken, İstanbul, November 2007

Useful link: Sample Cover Page – APA Style

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